Category Archives: Hamas

Mossad Agent Linked to Killing of Hamas Leader

ED NOTE: Mahmoud al-Mabhouh was killed after an interview with Al JazeeraChannel leaked by Hamad Bin Jasim to locate him and follow him and kill him in Dubai
 
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Mossad Agent Linked to Killing of Hamas Leader
Ben Zygier

The Australian-Israeli ‘Mossad agent’ who has become known as ‘Prisoner X’ may have been linked to the assassination of a Hamas commander in Dubai in 2010, the same year he was found dead in a maximum security jail near Tel Aviv, a report said.

According to a report by the New York Times quoting the Kuwaiti daily Al Jarida on Thursday, Ben Zygier, identified as Prisoner X, was among the 26 suspects in an assassination plot in which Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a Hamas official, was tracked and killed in his hotel room hours after his arrival in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, in January 2010.

The assassins had reportedly used fake passports from Australia, Britain, Ireland, Germany and France, among other countries.

The report added that ‘Prisoner X’, who apparently spent a decade working for Mossad, had provided the officials in Dubai with “names and pictures and accurate details” in exchange for protection.
However, the Zionist entity kidnapped him from his hideout and jailed him over treason nearly a month after the operation over the speculation that he had been on the verge of exposing Tel Aviv’s secrets about the passports.

Australian media also quoted a security official familiar with the case as saying that Zygier “may well have been about to blow the whistle, but he never got the chance.”

On Thursday, Australian media also reported that Zygier had been under investigation by Australia’s intelligence services over passport fraud.

The murder plot in Dubai led to diplomatic sanctions against the Tel Aviv regime due to the use of forged passports from European countries and Australia in the operation.

On February 12, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) reported that Ben Zygier was “found hanged in a cell with state-of-the-art surveillance systems” near Tel Aviv in late 2010.

 

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Egypt floods Gaza lifeline tunnels

 
 
 
Employees of the Hamas Ministry of Agriculture collect poultry
that was smuggled into the Gaza Strip from Egypt by Palestinian
farm owners, on February 5, 2013 at a a poultry farm in Deir
al-Balah in central Gaza Strip. (Photo: Reuters – Said Khatib)

Egyptian forces have flooded smuggling tunnels under the border with the Palestinian-ruled Gaza Strip in a campaign to shut them down, Egyptian and Palestinian officials said.

The network of tunnels is a vital lifeline for Gaza, bringing in an estimated 30 percent of all goods that reach the enclave and circumventing a deadly blockade imposed by Israel for more than seven years.

Reuters reporters saw one tunnel being used to bring in cement and gravel suddenly fill with water on Sunday, sending workers rushing for safety. Locals said two other tunnels were likewise flooded, with Egyptians deliberately pumping in water.

“The Egyptians have opened the water to drown the tunnels,” said Abu Ghassan, who supervises the work of 30 men at one tunnel some 200 meters (yards) from the border fence.

An Egyptian security official in the Sinai told Reuters the campaign started five days ago.
“We are using water to close the tunnels by raising water from one of the wells,” he said, declining to be named.

While Gaza’s rulers have been reluctant to criticize Mursi in public, ordinary Gazans are slightly more vocal.

“Egyptian measures against tunnels have worsened since the election of Mursi. Our Hamas brothers thought he would open up Gaza. I guess they were wrong,” said a tunnel owner, who identified himself only as Ayed, fearing reprisal.

“Perhaps 150 or 200 tunnels have been shut since the Sinai attack. This is the Mursi era,” he added.
Dozens of tunnels had been destroyed since last August following the killing of 16 Egyptian soldiers in a militant attack near the Gaza fence.

Cairo said some of the gunmen had crossed into Egypt via the tunnels – a charge denied by Palestinians – and ordered an immediate crackdown.

The move surprised and angered Gaza’s rulers, the Islamist group Hamas, which had hoped for much better ties with Cairo following the election last year of Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi, an Islamist who is ideologically close to Hamas.

A Hamas official confirmed Egypt was again targeting the tunnels. He gave no further details and declined to speculate on the timing of the move, which started while Palestinian faction leaders met in Cairo to try to overcome deep divisions.

The tunnelers fear the water being pumped underground might collapse the passage ways, with possible disastrous consequences.

“Water can cause cracks in the wall and may cause the collapse of the tunnel. It may kill people,” said Ahmed Al-Shaer, a tunnel worker whose cousin died a year ago when a tunnel caved in on him.
Six Palestinians died in January in tunnel implosions, raising the death toll amongst workers to 233 since 2007, according to Gazan human rights groups, including an estimated 20 who died in various Israeli air attacks on the border lands.

Israel imposed its vicious blockade on the coastal strip in 2007. Food imports to Gaza were cut by nearly 75 percent, from 400 trucks per day to 106 by the start of the blockade.

At one stage an estimated 2,500-3,000 tunnels snaked their way under the desert fence but the network has shrunk markedly since 2010, when Israel eased some of the limits they imposed on imports into the coastal enclave.

All goods still have to be screened before entering Gaza and Israel says some restrictions must remain on items that could be used to make or to store weapons.

This ensures the tunnels are still active, particularly to bring in building materials. Hamas also prefers using the tunnels to smuggle in fuel, thereby avoiding custom dues that are payable on oil crossing via Israel.

(Reuters, Al-Akhbar)

 

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الفتنة قادمة، والانفجار على الأبواب…. فهل من يسمع ويعقل؟

“المارينز التكفيري”.. لاغتيال المقاومة
 
الأربعاء, 13 فبراير 2013 16:58
 
د. نسيب حطيط
 


 

 بعد إشعال الساحة السورية، واستنزاف الجيش السوري، ومحاولة تعطيل الدور المقاوم لسورية، وانحياز بعض حركات المقاومة الفلسطينية لصالح مشروع ما يسمى “الربيع العربي”، والتحالف مع قطر و”الإسلاميين الجدد”، الذين التزموا باتفاقيات كامب ديفيد ومعاهدات الصلح مع “إسرائيل”، حتى وصلوا إلى دعوة اليهود الذين هاجروا من مصر للعودة إليها والتعويض عليهم، بقيت المقاومة في لبنان في ميدان المواجهة العملانية ضد “إسرائيل” على طول جبهة دول الطوق (لبنان وسورية والأردن ومصر
 
لذا فإن مصادرة “الثورات العربية” من قبل الأميركيين وحلفائهم الأتراك والعرب الخليجيين لم يحقق أهدافه الكاملة لحماية أمن “إسرائيل” والقضاء على مشروع المقاومة، وإن استطاع تحقيق بعض النجاح على مستوى استنزاف سورية وتحييد حركة “حماس”، وتقييد العمل المقاوم في فلسطين المحتلة، إلا أن الجبهة اللبنانية والأساسية التي تقلق وتهدد “إسرائيل” ما زالت موجودة، ولم تتأثر حتى الآن بما يجري في سورية، وإن جعلها أكثر حذراً وأربكها بعض الحلفاء الذين حركتهم العصبية المذهبية والإغراءات “المستقبلية” في السلطة المقبلة، على أشلاء الدولة الفلسطينية الموهومة أو “الكونفدرالية” الفلسطينية – الأردنية كـ”بربارة” للوطن البديل.

صقر الاخوان المصري محمد محرز قتل في حلب

بعد هزيمة “إسرائيل” في عدوان 2006، قررت الانتقام والثأر من المقاومة في لبنان، والداعمين لها في سورية وإيران، وما زالت تجهّز نفسها بالمناورات ودراسة الثغرات واستخلاص العبر وحشد القوى، لكنها عاجزة حتى الآن عن حسم الحرب الجديدة، فاتجهت مع الأميركيين لاستخدام طوابير التكفيريين، بعد نجاح استخدامهم بعنوان “المارينز التكفيري” بديلاً عن المارينز الأميركي في أفغانستان والعراق وسورية، عبر “جبهة النصرة” وألوية “القاعدة” وأخواتها، لذا بدأوا بتحضيرالساحة اللبنانية لاستقبال كتائب التكفيريين، مع حضانة داخلية، على أن يتم تجميع بعض القوى الفلسطينية والسورية واللبنانية في تجمّع تكفيري جديد تغطيه “جبهة النصرة في بلاد الشام”، من أولى مهامه:
1- محاولة ضرب المقاومة في لبنان، واستنزافها، في سيناريو متكرر للحرب الأهلية في لبنان عام 1975.

2- استدراج المخيمات الفلسطينية للقتال، كما حدث في مخيم اليرموك جنوبي سورية.

3- تأطير النازحين السوريين مع العمال المقيمين، في كتائب “الجيش السوري الحر”، للانتقام من المقاومة، بعد اتهامها بالقتال مع النظام في سورية.

4- المناداة بشعار “رفع الحرمان عن أهل” السُّنة “والجماعة”، واسترداد “الكرامة” بتمويل قطري، لتضليل البسطاء بأن الهدف حماية “أهل السُّنة”، وذلك لإذكاء الفتنة المذهبية.

5- قيام “إسرائيل”، عبر عملائها، ببعض الاغتيالات بين صفوف الأطراف المتصارعة، وتفجير السيارات المفخخة، لإثارة الغرائز المذهبية والطائفية.

وبعد إنهاك الساحة اللبنانية، كما حدث عام 1975، والتي انتهت باجتياح عام 1982 وطرد المقاومة الفلسطينية من لبنان، وتوقيع اتفاقية أوسلو، وبداية انتهاء المقاومة الفلسطينية، ستعيد “إسرائيل” التجربة من جديد، وتقوم بغزو لبنان، بعد إنهاك المقاومة، للتخلص نهائياً من بقية المقاومة العربية والإسلامية، ويتم بعدها نقل المارينز التكفيري إلى إيران وروسيا. إرهاصات الحرب “الإسرائيلية” على لبنان بواسطة التكفيريين الذين بدأت جحافلهم بالوصول والانتشار، والغطاء السياسي من بعض الأغبياء والتابعين للمشروع الأميركي، تم تأمينهم، وحادثة عرسال مثال على ذلك، بعدما بقي الجيش يتيماً ومتهماً، وحركة “الأسير” النقالة في باصاته، والتي لن تهدأ، ويمكن لمن يحرّكه أو يستخدمه أن يجعله بديلاً عن “بوسطة عين الرمانة” لإشعال الفتنة.

يتلهى المسؤولون بالزاوج المدني وديمقراطية الانتخابات وسلسلة الرتب والرواتب، ويغمضون أعينهم عن الخطر الحقيقي الذي لن يُبقي أخضر ولا يابساً.

ذلك هو المشروع “الإسرائيلي” – الأميركي الجديد.. فهل ينجح؟

الجواب: سيفشل بإذن الله كما فشلت المشاريع السابقة، وستنتصر المقاومة وأهلها، وعلى العقلاء في لبنان، خصوصاً السُّنة والشيعة، أن يبادروا لتحصين ساحتهم، فـ”إسرائيل” ليست حريصة على السُّنة ولا على الشيعة، والدليل أن أهل فلسطين كلهم من المسلمين السُّنة، وهم أول من ذُبحوا وطُردوا واحتُلت أرضهم، وما زالوا يُقتلون، لكن التكفيريين الذين يحملون لواء أهل السُّنة زوراً لم يقتلوا “إسرائيلياً” حتى الآن، ولم يوجهوا صاروخاً أو طلقة رصاص، لأنهم صنيعة المخابرات الأميركية وأخواتها من المخابرات العربية.
الفتنة قادمة، والانفجار على الأبواب، فإما أن نقع فيهما جميعاً وندفع الثمن من الدمار والتهجير وضياع القضية، أو نبادر للوحدة والعقل والحوار، لإنقاذ لبنان وفلسطين وسورية.. فهل من يسمع ويعقل؟ سورية الان – الثبات

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Hamas to demolish 40 Gaza homes

 
Published Wednesday, February 13, 2013
 
Gaza’s Hamas government is set to demolish 40 houses in central Gaza city, nearly one year after a court ruled the neighborhood to be public property.

Bulldozers were stationed Wednesday outside the homes of nearly 75 families in al-Rimal neighborhood. Many of whom are Palestinian refugees displaced by Israel in 1948.
Demolitions are expected to take place later in the day.

Meanwhile, scores of residents staged a demonstration against the decision outside Palestinian Legislative Council offices.

“This is a great injustice, an act of persecution and a forceful imposition of Hamas’s own version of laws on refugees,” resident Hazem Abu Hmeid told Al-Akhbar.

Families will be given $1,000 each in compensation, and have been allotted pieces of land near Gaza’s borders. Abu Hmeid says the government’s remuneration “falls very short” of the money invested in their houses.

He says that he has invested over $50,000 in his house.

The government, however, claims that the families had agreed to the package over negotiations Tuesday night.

“We will no longer accept violations against public property, no matter how long they have been going on for … we want to assure people that we respect human rights for decent living and finding suitable living situations for the families,” read a statement from the Gaza government.
“We emphasize the extreme importance we place on not abandoning the families whose houses will be removed to the streets,” it added.

Al-Rimal neighborhood lies in a busy commercial area where property values are among the highest in the coastal strip. Many residents expect the government to open the area up to lucrative investments.
(Al-Akhbar)

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Israeli soldiers raid West Bank villages, arrest five

Israeli forces arrest a Palestinian man during clashes with demonstrators in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Issawiya on 8 February 2013, following a demonstration in solidarity with Palestinian hunger striker Samer Issawi. (Photo: AFP – Ahmad Gharabli)
 
Published Sunday, February 10, 2013
 
Israeli forces arrested five Palestinian youths, including a 14-year-old, during overnight raids in the West Bank Sunday, local media reported.

The latests arrests come as Palestinian factions wrapped up two days of reconciliation talks in Cairo.
In the West Bank village of Burqaa, near Nablus, soldiers arrested Shadi Abu Omar, Fadi Abu Omar, and Munjed Daughlas at dawn, according to Ma’an news agency.

Israeli forces arrested another man, 24-year-old Moussa Issa Abu Sabha, during a raid on Yatta, south of Hebron.

An Israeli military spokesperson said two others were arrested in Arura, near Ramalla, and another in Beit Kahil, in the Hebron area.

Israeli forces raided the town of Burqeen, west of Jenin, and arrested 14-year-old Mohammed Ghanem. Other residents suffered from asphyxiation after soldiers fired tear gas at them.
WAFA news agency reported that soldiers also summoned two Palestinians, Sami Yousef Shariah, 23, and Mohammed Ali Al-Orouj, 22, for questioning near the illegal Jewish settlement of Ghosh Itsion, south of Bethlehem.

In Cairo, Palestinian rival factions Hamas and Fatah made little progress following two days of talks in Cairo. They remain divided over how exactly to apply a deal the two parties had agreed to more than a year earlier, an official said.

PLO Executive Committee member Wassel Abu Youssef had earlier on Saturday said that the main points of dispute were over the way elections were held for the PNC, as well as other issues relating to legislative and presidential elections in the Palestinian territories.

He also said there was disagreement over the timing of the establishment of a caretaker cabinet, which is supposed to prepare for new elections, and the announcement of a date for such a poll.
Another point of dispute was the type of voting system to be used, officials said.

The Cairo talks were convened by Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, whose Fatah faction signed a reconciliation deal with Hamas in April 2011 aimed at ending years of rivalry, but which has never been properly implemented.
(Al-Akhbar, Ma’an, AFP)

Israel detains seven in violent West Bank raids

“The Embassy of the State of Palestine,”

“…“I informed my Palestinian counterpart of the decision of the government to upgrade the status of the Palestinian diplomatic representation in Cyprus from that of a Diplomatic Mission to that of an Embassy of the State of Palestine,” Marcoullis told reporters.She said this “important decision” was in line with the recognition of the Palestinian State in 1988 by Cyprus …”

 

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Farewell BDS

By Daniel Mabsout

mash3al

 The BDS movement of Boycott Divest and Sanction has changed the wording of its amendment without informing the endorsers of BDS who amount to 170 Palestinian organizations, parties , unions and movements of this change or consulting them as is expected .The wording changed from : Israel
“ Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall”.

as it figured in the original text of year 2005 the year BDS was founded
to
“Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands occupied in June 1967 and dismantling the Wall.”


BDS did this change without consulting its endorsers or conferring with its stirring committee which is the BNC or the Boycott Divest and Sanction National Committee.

Some Palestinian Organizations were shocked and are considering the possibility of withdrawing from BDS like al Awda organization .

This change in wording does not only recognize the right to exist of Israel within the borders of 1948 and seeks the two state solution instead of the one legitimate Palestinian State, but it also jeopardizes the right of all Palestinians to return which constitutes the third amendment of BDS which says:
Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in UN Resolution 194.

The objection raised by some pro Palestinian activists is in its right place when they say that if Israel still exists on 1948 occupied land then to where the millions of refugees shall return ? They cannot return to their own towns and villages for sure.

This major shift in the BDS policy might be due to the fact that BDS is getting funds from George Soros institutes since Soros believes in the right of Israel to exist , or that BDS is collaborating with Israeli authorities . It is noticeable that BDS refuses to reveal the list of its financers and make public the list of its major financers as transparency requires .

The conclusion about this whole mess is that these organizations like BDS are shady and not only they lack transparency regarding their financing, but they lack transparency regarding their whole position and this goes back to earlier than the recent wording of the first amendment that recognizes the right of Israel to exist within 1948 borders . Because refusing to take a clear political position regarding the issue of Palestine -on behalf of Palestinians like BDS- while at the same time calling for basic Palestinian rights – like the right to return- is in itself suspicious.

This lack of clear stand and this debate over the Palestinian issue sifting between the one state ( Palestinian or Israeli) and the two states ( Palestinian and Israeli ) solution is the matrix where the recognition of Israel has started taking shape to become later a known fact . The recognition of Israel was probably at the origin of all this wavering and fluctuating and debating waiting for the proper time to become known.

This apparent shift in BDS stand coincides with the latest positions of HAMAS whereby Khaled Mash’al – for the first time -has recognized the 1948 borders of Israel . The BDS no doubt has the same sectarian agenda as HAMAS which is implementing the sectarian policy promoted by the world order through Muslim Brotherhood.

It is high time to bid farewell to BDS and give room to a genuine transparent solidarity movement . The BDS has hijacked this movement for too long . the Palestinian Cause is an authentic cause that deserves an authentic transparent solidarity movement.


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Hamas Weighs Options For Recognizing Israel

نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي
Actually Mishaal recognized the Zionist Entity the moment he decided to leave Damascus and move to Qatar, especially after signing the long truce. Like Arafat he neads time first to prepare palestinians, in general and Hamas in particular, for such step. However, I guess, unlikely oportionist Hamas will not go that far before the Palestinian elections, and the result of the Syrian crisis. Thats how I read his latest statement to BBC about Syrai still helping Hamas,



By: Adnan Abu Amer for Al-Monitor Palestine Pulse. Posted on February 8.

Recently, a lot has been said — and a lot of denials have been issued — about Hamas recognizing a two-state solution. It appears that Hamas is still vacillating between explicitly and implicitly recognizing Israel. Hamas realizes that recognizing Israel would open up the world’s doors to the movement. At the same time, Hamas knows that such a move would be seen as a betrayal by the movement’s supporters, both inside and outside Palestine.

As Hamas well knows, its legitimacy derives from its vocal support for armed struggle within the complicated Palestinian reality. Hamas also knows that it will pay a heavy price if it is seen to be agreeing to international conditions. The cost will not only be political, but also ideological.

Hamas has spent many years talking and writing about its notion of the state, its identity, borders, concept, constitution and the role of Islam within it. Generations of Hamas members were raised on those ideas. But those ideas have remained part of the imagination and heritage, and of the nostalgic dream of restoring the Islamic caliphate.

The concept of the state

Today’s debate within Hamas over the concept of the state is more concrete than theoretical. The political conditions in the Palestinian territories do not allow for dreaming about unrealistic grand theories being promoted by some Islamist movements. Hamas is facing real-world problems that require real-world solutions. The Palestinian state being envisioned by Palestinian, Arab, and world politicians is based on the June 1967 borders. But does that fit Hamas’s political vision and intellectual orientation?

Generations of Islamists have been raised on the concept of the “Islamic state,” which is synonymous with the Islamic caliphate. But Hamas’s situation is a little different. Israel’s occupation of all Palestinian territories is a political and concrete obstacle to the dream of an Islamic state and it forces the consideration of more realistic options. So we have started hearing, from Hamas, statements about establishing a Palestinian state on the June 1967 borders.

There is no doubt that this development is an intellectual and political shift by Hamas. More than 20 years ago, Hamas founder Sheik Ahmed Yassin proposed a long truce with Israel. But today, such a proposal is more realistic and is attributed to Hamas’s current leader Khaled Meshaal. Hamas in 2013 is different than Hamas in 1993. Hamas is now an influential player and its statements and stances are taken into account by regional and international decision-making circles.

Recognition and commitment


The shuttle diplomacy by Western officials between Gaza, where Hamas’s domestic leadership is located, and the Arab capitals of Doha, Cairo and Amman have only one objective: getting Hamas to agree to the conditions that would allow it to be embraced by the international community. In other words, they want Hamas to agree to the two-state solution. And that, explicitly or implicitly, essentially means that Hamas has recognized Israel’s right to exist!

Those who have been following Hamas’s course since it was founded 25 years ago notice that every once in awhile there is international pressure to make Hamas agree to those conditions. But Hamas is afraid to fall into the same trap that others, like Fatah, have fallen into without getting anything in return except loss of popular support, as was demonstrated in the elections seven years ago.

In light of the demands that the movement should recognize the two-state solution and make political commitments, some influential circles within the Hamas leadership think that the movement is being drawn into going beyond its rational political discourse and how it deals with the reality on the ground, and into recognizing Israel and exchanging messages with it.

However, the siege has made the Palestinian territories miserable. So decision-makers in Hamas are forced to issue hints and signals that do not affect the movement’s general principles. Those signals, however, may be misunderstood. And this is where the problem lies. No one thinks that Hamas supporters will make a big deal of those signals, but any concrete steps toward recognizing Israel will cost Hamas dearly, something which I don’t think Hamas wants during this dangerous phase.
At the external level, Hamas’s enemies and opponents may think that the siege has finally paid off, albeit a little late, and that Hamas’s current declarations are signals that, if the siege and the Palestinian suffering continue, the movement may explicitly recognize Israel, which would open the “appetite” of Hamas’ opponents for more breakthroughs in its ideology and principles.

Not an existential conflict, but a border dispute.


Although Hamas is aware of all that, it should be noted that in a few months it is facing elections during which the movement’s signals that it may accept a two-state solution will be used in a fierce anti-Hamas campaign. Even though the movement has provided a different administrative performance than before, the fundamental change in the movement’s political program may be a decisive factor for the Palestinian voters.

As Hamas is being smothered, with a few breaches here and there, the demands that it should recognize Israel are ongoing and without letup. In other words, Hamas must choose between recognizing Israel to stay in power, or losing what it has achieved democratically as punishment for having to refused to bow to the world’s conditions.

In reality, the international community has not significantly changed its relationship with the Palestinians, including Hamas, over the past months and years. There has only been some cosmetic and tactical changes. Washington, the European Union and the UN have not only signaled to Hamas that it should join the “broken and paralyzed” peace process, they have also insisted that the Palestinians explicitly recognize Israel. But this time, those powers are armed with an “Islamic religious cloak,” which would make a recognition of Israel more meaningful, especially since Hamas considers its conflict with Israel to be an ideological “existential conflict, not a border dispute.”

That pressure is accompanied with a financial and economic blockade, which is increasing the pressure on Hamas, especially since those carrying out the blockade are blocking anything that would alleviate Palestinian suffering. It is clear that they want to punish the Palestinians for electing Hamas and warn them against reelecting them; that is if the reconciliation succeeds and the elections happen on time.

It should be noted that certain Israeli and Western research institutions have estimated the timeframe that Hamas will need to explicitly recognize Israel. They may accept from Hamas certain rhetorical signals for a while before the movement officially recognizes Israel.

Since Hamas was founded in late 1987, it has been conducting an ideological and political campaign for its members and supporters against recognizing Israel. Hamas’ constitution says that Israel is a “cancer that must be eradicated,” and that “its demise is a Quranic inevitability.” Those and other slogans have been a key component of Hamas’s political discourse. It is therefore not easy for Hamas to change overnight due to political realism and suddenly tell its supporters: We shall recognize Israel, but it’s under duress!

Adnan Abu Amer is Dean of the Faculty of Arts, and head of the Press and Information Section as well as a lecturer in the history of the Palestinian issue, national security, political science and Islamic civilization at Al Ummah University Open Education. He holds a doctorate in political history from the Demashq University. He has published a number of books on issues related to the contemporary history of the Palestinian cause and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Follow him on twitter @adnanabuamer1

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